Production of environmentally friendly fertilizers from peat
Cavitation technologies of humic substances production and their use
Cavitation technologies [1-2] refer to high technologies (the term "breakthrough" technologies is often used to high, quickly recouping technologies). The cavitation technology is based on the phenomenon of cavitation, which is artificially created in special technological reactors. Nonlinear dynamic effects accompanying cavitation (shock waves, cumulative jets, ultraviolet and ultrasonic radiation, etc.) lead to positive results in the preparation of humic preparations.
Cavitation effect, which is a single complex of chemical and hydrodynamic phenomena, refers to the soft methods of action, as it is carried out at a solution temperature not exceeding 35 °C (like cold boiling), which does not lead to significant chemical destruction of raw materials. This allows you to save in the resulting preparation vitamins, enzymes and other biologically useful substances that decompose at high temperatures. At the same time, peak pressure increases and shock waves formed during cavitation lead to increased dispersion of peat, and water, breaking up into hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals and interacting with easily oxidized peat substances, leads to an accelerated transition of humic substances into solution.
Advantages of cavitation method
Compared with the method of cold alkaline treatment improves the quality of products:
1. Increases the yield of phenolic substances and total nitrogen.
2. Increases the output of the group O+N+S, the total acidic groups COOH+HE. The increased yield of phenolic substances determines the higher biological activity of the product.
3. Peat sediment is obtained in a more dispersed state, which makes it possible to produce a whole range of new market products.
4. 1.5-2 times the yield of humic substances is increased, the productivity of the process is significantly increased.
The plant using cavitation technology also has a number of advantages:
1. It is composed of separate functional modules. The modular principle of the structure of the plant, allows for the development of the market to carry out a gradual increase in production, increasing the number of similar modules of the production line.
2. For its construction and start-up, immeasurably lower start-up costs are required.
3. It occupies a smaller area, has a lower metal content, bulkiness of the equipment used.
4. It allows you to get a unit of production with low energy costs.
5. It can be easily reoriented to the production of other products from organic raw materials.
Technological line of the plant
The measuring hopper is filled with a dose of peat, and the scraper conveyor installed in it, delivers peat to the vibrating separator (img.1).
Peat vibration separator (img.2, 3). Designed for the separation of fractions suitable for further crushing is subjected to cavitation treatment.
The peat vibration separator consists of an electric motor-reducer (img.4), the output rod, at the end of which an elastic element (elastic spring) is fixed, a nonlinear limiter – drummer, a trough inside which peat is poured. The trough is suspended on cables. At the bottom of the trough is fixed sieve. The trough is set at an angle α to the horizon. At the bottom of the trough is attached to the collecting box, from which the sifted peat is poured into the collecting tank.
The system of peat pneumatic supply from the preparatory workshop to the homogenization tanks using a fan – type vacuum pump (img.5) suck peat corrugated receiving pipe and the exhaust pipe emits into the homogenization tank.
Homogenization tanks are designed for soaking peat, primary homogenization, mixing with chemical reagents. The appearance of the tank is shown in img.6.
Cavitation module (img. 7) processes the pulp into peat humic substance, is installed in a closed compartment.
Technical characteristics of the mini-module:
- Weight with tank-250 kg
- Performance of liquid humic fertilizers at pump power 8.4 kW-400 l / h
- tank length 150 cm
- tank width 80 cm
- weight of the cavitation unit 300 kg
Decanter (img. 8). After cavitation processing, the liquid with fine particles of peat in it very quickly clogs the filter sieve, because the precipitate on the sieve is extremely sticky. The cost of foreign decanters lies within 150 000 – 250 000 EUR. Their use can be justified only in large factories. Therefore, it was decided to use other filtering ideas. Replacement tanks are designed to accumulate the product in one shift of work and adjust its concentration using the Express method.
Characteristics of the obtained product
Quality control of the resulting product "Humate Green OK" was carried out by independent experts – Professor G. Telysheva (Institute of wood chemistry, Latvia) and prof M. Klavins (University of Latvia, Riga). It follows from these conclusions that the cavitation technology of extraction of humic substances allows
- increase their yield in solution
- speed up the extraction process significantly
- to enhance the biological activity of the product due to a significant increase in the content of phenolic structures
field tests on rapeseed, maize and lupine carried out in Latvia (Presented on the basis of an abbreviated translation of articles by L. borovko and M. Vaivara "Humic substances from peat – the value of gold [3, 4]) showed their high efficiency in growing rapeseed, lupine, corn.
These results describe the development of plants at early stages and are intriguing. But one thing is clear – humic substances in biological agriculture will be given a green way to increase the yield and its stability.
Humic substances can also be used for:
- production of brick and ceramic products.
- increased strength or material savings in the manufacture of cement products.
- improving the quality of drilling fluids. * Replacement of cast iron with hardened cement.
- Getting cheap dyes for paper and knitwear.
- production of shampoos, lotions, as a means against hair loss and other new types of perfume and cosmetic products.
- Manufacture of medical preparations.
- Development of biological catalysts.
- Acceleration of ethanol fermentation.
- Manufacture of coal-humic briquettes.